Public service announcement: my horse is the prettiest
photo by got-spots
Hey you might have a little something on your face there
#Vetwrap level: expert #dogsitting #yellowlab #labrador #retriever
The star-nosed mole, Condylura cristata (1758)
Phylum : Chordata
Class : Mammalia
Order : Soricomorpha
Family : Talpidae
Subfamily : Scalopinae
Genus : Condylura
Species : C. cristata
- Least concern
- 20 cm long and 55 g (size)
- Eastern North America (map)
The development of the star like appendages suggests precursors with proto-appendages of an ancestor’s snout which became elevated over successive generations. Although this theory lacks fossil evidence or supporting comparative data, nearly all extant moles have sheets of the of Eimer’s organ making up the epidermis or their snout around their nares. Also, recent studies of Catania and colleagues identified one North American species (Scapanus townsendi) with a set of proto-appendages extending caudally on the snout which have a striking resemblance with the embryonic stages of the star-nosed mole.Scapanus townsendii has only eight subdivisions on its face, fewer than the 22 appendages found on the star-nosed mole. Such change is of common occurrence in evolution and is explained by the advantage of efficiently adding modules to the body plan without need to reinvent the regulatory elements that produce each module. Thus, although the star is unique in its shape and size, it seem feasible that the structure is based on a more ancestral bauplan as it comprises similarities found in a wide range of other moles and also in the molecular structure of other mammals.
The picture that emerges suggests that star-nosed moles although based on a mammalian basis, are an extreme in mammalian evolution, with perhaps the most sensitive mechanosensory system to be found among mammals. The evolutionary process that led to elaboration of this star-like nose is based in 2 theories. One proposes the development of the structure of the star as a consequence of the selective pressure of the wetland habitat in which the star-nosed mole inhabits. Wetlands have a dense population of small insects and exploiting this resource requires a higher resolution sensory surface than of other moles. Thus, a shift to the wetland environment may have provided a selective advantage for a more elaborate sensory structure. Besides, in wild caught moles of many species, the Eimer’s organs show obvious signs of wear and abrasion. The constant and repeated contact with the soil apparently damages the sensory organs, which have a thin keratinized epidermis. Star-nosed moles are the only species that live in the moist, muddy soil of wetlands, therefore a less abrasive soil of this environment also allow this star-shaped structure to evolve.
The second theory of prey profitability explains the foraging speed of the star-nosed mole. Prey profitability or energy gained divided by prey handling time, is an essential variable for estimating the optimal diet. When handling time approaches zero profitability increases dramatically. Due to the small invertebrate animals available in the wetlands, star nosed mole developed handling times as short as 120 ms, therefore the dazzling speed with which it forages counterbalances the low nutritional value of each individual piece of food, and maximizes the time available for finding food. Further, the proximity of the star-shaped nose to the mouth greatly reduces the handling time required before food can be ingested, and is a major factor in how the star-nosed mole can find and eat food so quickly.
Sorry not sorry #calcifer #catsinthings #tortietude #catinabag #catsofinstagram #catstagram #betchacanteatjustone #tortoiseshell #kitten
bet you will never guess the breed
trainer was like “oh, i’ve got two students who might be looking for something to shareboard! do you know anything? i wasn’t planning on getting another horse right away but maybe if we all go in on something…”
FUCK i wish i had balls of brass and could get my little tomster and make him the cutest sassiest dressage/jumper/packer lesson pony to walk the earth. mother effing jeebus monkey balls.
but srsly, if anyone in N. IL knows of something cheap that could do lessons and local shows pass it along…